**Basic Parallel Circuit**

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The procedure is the same — (1) draw a circuit diagram, (2) state the values given and the values to be found, (3) state the applicable equations, and (4) substitute the given values and solve for the unknown. A parallel circuit is defined as one having more than one current path connected to a common voltage source. Parallel circuits, therefore, must contain two or more load resistances which are not connected in series. An example of a basic parallel circuit is shown in Fig. 511.It will be shown how the principles applied to series circuits can be used to determine the reactions of such quantities as voltage, current, and resistance in parallel and seriesparallel circuits. Along with the progressive introduction of electrical theories and.circuit characteristics comes a corresponding progression inthe use of mathematical equations and problem solving methods. A basic knowledge of powers of ten, fractions, fractional equations, and the use of simultaneous 8.1 INTRODUCTION The ac circuits, in which number of branches are connected in parallel, such that the voltage across them is same, are called acparallel circuit. Parallel circuits are used more often in practice as all lighting and power circuits are constant voltage circuits and the loads/equipments are connected in parallel. The total current supplied by the voltage source is equal to the phasor sum of the individual branch currents. In this chapter, following methods are discussed for In parallel circuits, voltage.across the various branches of the circuit is the same and as such the applied voltage should be taken as reference phasor to draw the phasor diagram of parallel circuits. The phasor diagram of this circuit with applied voltage as reference phasor is shown in Fig. 1. Current in the inductive branch has been taken greater than that of the current in the capacitive branch. Thus, the resultant of IL and Ic is (ILIC). Current drawn from the supply, I = Phasor sum of IR It will be shown how the principles applied to series circuits can be used to determine the reactions of such quantities as voltage, current, and resistance in parallel and seriesparallel circuits. Along with the progressive introduction of electrical theories and circuit.characteristics comes a corresponding progression intheuseof mathematical equations and problem solving methods. A basic knowledge of powers of ten, fractions, fractional equations, and the use of simultaneous equations A basic knowledge of powers of ten, fractions, fractional equations, and the use of simultaneous equations is required for the comprehension of material presented in this chapter. PARALLEL CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS A parallel circuit is defined as one having more than one current path connected to a common voltage source. Parallel circuits, therefore, must contain two or more load resistances which are not connected in series. An example of a basic parallel circuit is shown in Current Flow in Parallel Circuits.261 Equal Resistors in Parallel Circuits 264 Unequal Resistors in Parallel Circuits 265 Experiment/Application — Parallel Circuit Voltage 266 Experiment/Application — Parallel Circuit Current 267 Experiment/Application — Parallel Circuit Resistance 268 Experiment/Application — Parallel Resistances 269 Kirchhoff s First Law 270 Experiment/Application — Kirchhoff's First Law 275 Unequal Resistors in Parallel Circuits (continued) 276 Review PARALLEL DC CIRCUITS The discussion of electrical circuits presented up to this point has been concerned with series circuits in which there is only one path for current. There is another basic type of circuit known as the PARALLEL CIRCUIT with which you must become familiar. Where.the series circuit has only one path for current, the parallel circuit has more than one path for current. Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's law apply to all electrical circuits, but the characteristics of a parallel dc